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Cancer Immunotherapy

GC CELL's immunotherapy(or cancer immunotherapy) consists of two major cell lines: cytokine-induced
killer (CIK) cells and activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Both cells differ in how to recognize cancer cells.
CIK cells recognize cancer cells and destroy them without recognizing specific antigens,
not like natural killer cells. However, CTLs recognize and destroy cancer cells through presented antigens
on expressing cells. Both cells are active. They secrete substances that activate each other.
Their complementary interaction induces effective treatment response.

Cancer Immunotherapy = CIK + aTc(CTL)

Two major cell types produce complementary reactions that effectively remove cancer cells

CIK(Cytokine-Induced Killer cell)
Non-MHC ClassⅠ- restricted
Cancer cells are recognized and removed by MHC class independent manner
CIK(Cytokine-Induced Killer cell) 아래 설명 참조
CIK
CD56
CD3
T cell receptor
NKG2D
NKG2D ligand
IFN-y
Release of perforin and granzymes
Tumor cell
Polyperforin channel
Cytolysis and apoptosis Induction
Death of Tumor cell
aTc(CTL)
MHC ClassⅠ- restricted
Antigen information is acquired by MHC class Ⅰ and then cancer cells are recognized and removed.
aTc(activated Tc cell) 아래 설명 참조
aTc
Release of perforin and granzymes
T cell receptor
Tumor derlved peptide
MHC class I
IFN-y
Tumor cell
Polyperforin channel
Cytolysis and apoptosis Inducton
Death of Tumor cell
Cancer Immunotherapy production process
Review

Between July 2008, and November 2012, We investigated whether injections of activated cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells(CD3+/CD56+ and CD3+/CD56- T cells and CD3-/CD56 natural killer cells) prolongs recurrence-free survival of patients after curative therapy for HCC.

And then published hepatocellular carcinoma papers in Gastroenterology, June 2015.

  • Journal : Gastroenterology 148;1383–1391(2015)
  • Title : Adjuvant Immunotherapy With Autologous Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

230 patients with HCC after their malignant tumor had been extirpated by surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation or percutaneous ethanol injection in their multicenter randomized clinical trial.

Patients were assigned randomly to receive immunotherapy (injection of 6.4 X 109 autologous CIK cells, 16 times during 60 weeks) or no adjuvant therapy (controls).

As a result, recurrence-free survival (survival duration without recurrence, the primary endpoint of the study) was 44 months for the treatment group while that of the control group was 30 months. This is approximately 1.5 fold increase for the treatment group.
The immunotherapy consistently reduced the risk of all 3 types of tumor recurrence: intrahepatic local recurrence, intrahepatic distant recurrence and extrahepatic recurrence.

Recurrence-free survival
면역세포치료군은 대조군에 비해 재발률은 37%, 사망률은 79% 감소했으며, 중대한 부작용의 발생에 있어서 두 군 간에 유의미한 차이는 없었습니다.

The recurrence rate of the treatment group was 37% lower than that of the control group while the mortality rate of the treatment group was 79% lower than that of the control group. However, there was no significant difference in occurrence of serious adverse reactions between these two groups.

Overall survival
암특이적 생존에서도 면역세포치료군이 대조군에 비해 사망률이 81% 감소된 것으로 확인되었습니다.

OS was longer in the immunotherapy group than in the control group. Adjuvant immunotherapy after curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma reduced the survival rate by 79%. In addition, cancer-specific survival was longer in the immunotherapy group. Cancer-specific survival rate of the treatment group was 81% lower than that of the control group.

Cancer-specific survival
암특이적 생존에서도 면역세포치료군이 대조군에 비해 사망률이 81% 감소된 것으로 확인되었습니다.

Ref: Gastroenterology 148;1383–1391(2015)

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